“Super Market” & “Mini Market” of Violence”

{ By. Husnul Isa Harahap }

At Monday Morning (Depok, 5 November 2007) at Soelaeman Soemardi meeting room FISIP University of Indonesia, discussion with theme “Pengendalian Sektor Keamanan Informal: Indikasi Negara Lemah” (Control of the Security Sector: The Weak of Country Indication) has been doing. It’s to present the find of researcher (Ian Wilson, Adrianus Meilala, Richard Robinson –but Richard Robinson not came-, and Muhammad Mustafa as a complementary). This research sponsored by Australia-Indonesia Governance Research Partnership.

Generally topics as share about behavioral of ISG (Internal Security Group) which much more “autonomous” with violence, political supporting and problem of poverty. “The Indonesian case offers important insights into the way informal security organizations may accompany the emerge of democracy and markets” (AIGRP Executive Summary 5 November 2007). Also, there are share solutions. Like, making regulation to “make” security industry (entry point to be Satpam), Criminal operation to Preman, Police regulation facilitating cooperation with ISG’s (basic for Satgas Parpol), political party law (determining onderbow) and freedom of expression of law and its regulation (for paid demo bussiness).

Ian Wilson first, makes evident about political-economy of violence at Jakarta, especially about Informal Security Group (ISG) phenomena. According to Ian violence at Jakarta cannot divorce with problem of economy. Many people chose to join with ISG group because they have no many to eat (Experience of Ian when doing interview “why join to ISG”; the answer is “untuk isi perut bang”/”to load a stomach”). And motif of built the ISG is to support political interest of politician or political parties. Because if ISG support their interest, ISG will be take a “reward”. The terminology used by Ian to describe ISG phenomena is “entrepreneur kekerasan” (entrepreneurs of violence).

Diagram 1. Politics and ISG Relation.

Source: Modified From Ian Wilson Analysis (Refer to My note book).

Ian always said about interest to explain why al of it phenomena happened. People not see Police as law enforcement because they do “extra legal” role. (Differentiation about crime organization and non organization crime is about legitimating). Ian give a “note” that at Russia after Soviet, the growing of “entrepreneur kekerasan” as implication the adhesiveness of growth primitive capitalism and nonproductive rule.

Adrianus Meilala second, makes evident about the confusion of the state to control ISG. He said as a long time, ISG has been maintained by the state and the state to be under guard of ISG. Because of that crime organization -my be- was born from the state. But now everything has changing and ISG get the “freedom”. ISG have a bargain to the state and furthest they can to press on it.

Table 1. Sight to ISG Phenomena.

Source: Modified From Adrianus Meilala (Refer to My note book).

Muhammad Mustafa Third, as a complementary gives understanding –gingerly- about ISG in Indonesia from the angle of histories. As a method, Mustafa present comparative history perspective. It’s important to searching differentiations at ISG phenomena. Like at Orba Era, Police in group with TNI and at Reformation Era, Police is fragmented with TNI (its also give impact to ISG phenomena). Because of that, do partitioned the period of history is urgent at this perspective.

Table 2. The Comparative History Perspective Search Differentiation ISG Phenomena at Indonesia 1945-2007

Source: Modified From Mustofa Analysis (Refer to My note book).

As a note, Mustafa remind that the crime organization can survive because they are having collaborated with the corrupt politician. Relation of the leader (Ketua) and member (anggota) of ISG is patron-client, about provided the arena of working.

Diagram 2. Relation the Leader (Boss) and The Member (Anggota) of ISG

Source: Modified From Mustofa Analysis (Refer to My note book).

On My Reviews. This study used rational choice theory to analysis the phenomena of ISG at Jakarta. Combine with others approach like, sociology and political criminal, political economy, and histories…….Continue…..>>>>


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